Posts Tagged ‘media’
September 1, 2015 by Kay Paumier
If a reporter contacts you for an interview, you need to respond quickly or you may miss a great opportunity to promote your company or organization. Most reporters work on tight timelines so if you delay, they will probably interview someone else.
That said, media interviews are tricky and not for the faint of heart. Some people have tried to “wing it” and learn media-interview techniques by trial and error. That’s not recommended. Even seasoned interviewees have been trapped into saying things they later regretted.
Savvy businesspeople prepare for interviews well before the opportunity presents itself, so that they can respond quickly and effectively. Many hire professional media interview trainers or PR consultants to help with this preparation.
Here are some of the techniques I have used to train clients for interviews. The first tips deal with preparing for the interview. The other tips cover the interview itself.
Before the Interview
Prepare. Develop several ways of repeating your basic messages so you can repeat your points without sounding repetitious.
Outline your stories, your examples, your “proof.” Of these, the stories are the most important. We are hard-wired to respond to stories. People remember them, repeat them and learn from them. So have several stories “up your sleeve.”
Find out as much information as you can about the interview, including the name and title of the interviewer; the publication, blog, program or research firm; and the approximate publication or broadcast date.
Research the interviewer and topic. Do an online search for recent articles or reports. It’s important to be up to date. You want to be seen as a source of information.
Determine the questions you think might be asked. Outline your answers in writing.
Practice. Do a mock interview with a professional trainer. It’s one thing to read about interviews; it’s quite another thing to be in the middle of one.
During the Interview
Here are some techniques you can practice during the mock interview.
Think of the interview as a conversation with an important customer or prospect.
Take control of the interview as much as possible. You are the expert and every question is an “invitation” to repeat your messages.
Listen to the whole question. Think about the answer before you speak.
Make your main point(s) early in the interview and repeat them periodically.
Answer briefly, using short words and simple sentences. Illustrate your points with stories and examples.
Outline your answers. (e.g., “I’d like to make two points.”)
Don’t talk “off the record” or say “no comment.”
Above all, don’t let the interviewer trap you into saying something you’ll regret.
Your trainer can help you with these, and many other techniques, to assure that the interview is of great value to your organization.
August 18, 2015 by Kay Paumier
A reporter’s job is not easy. They are faced with multiple deadlines, with writing and producing visuals for both print and online, and with trying to become an expert (or at least proficient) in dozens of subjects.
Unfortunately, this heavy workload makes it harder for you to connect with traditional reporters. Here are some tips for getting their attention.
Pitch the right person. It amazes me that so many PR people target the wrong reporters, especially with the amount of information available today. Search for articles about your topic and pitch the reporters covering the “space.” Check the publication’s beat list, which is often online. Search in a PR database for appropriate media outlets and reporters that cover your industry.
Pitch people over products. Show the product or service in action—how it’s helping businesses be more profitable, doctors save lives and teachers educate the younger generation.
Or craft a story around how the product was developed. What were the problems? Challenges? Obstacles? Who was involved? Where did the idea come from? Give reporters a plot and you’ll increase the chances they’ll “bite” on your story idea.
Make your email subject line work for you. To avoid the dreaded “delete” key, include important keywords in your subject line. Even better, refer to past articles or coverage. A subject line that says “about your story on….” can dramatically increase the chances that your email will be read.
Begin with ( “what’s in it for them.” Tell the reporters why they should care in the first paragraph of the pitch. Provide the facts—the who, what, when, where, why and how—at the beginning.
Go heavy on data. Reporters love statistics. Give them timely information from reputable sources. Put the word “statistics” in your subject line. Bullet the data in your email or pitch. This will help establish you as a source.
Avoid attachments. Any attachment will probably be lost or get stripped away. Include pertinent data in the message or provide links for the reporters to get the information online.
Have a good online news room. Increasingly reporters rely on online newsrooms for research. Make sure yours is complete, easy to search and accessible. Include high-quality, downloadable visuals and video.
Be active on social media. Reporters say they look for experts and story ideas on virtually all the major social media platforms. Pick the most important one or two platforms and be “present” there. In the best of possible worlds, the reporters might start calling you without you even pitching them.
In short, make it easy for the reporter. Do as much of the research and creative thinking as possible. That’s the easiest, most effective way to get media attention.
May 5, 2015 by Kay Paumier
A pitch can focus on generating immediate coverage or on longer-term ideas and opportunities. The immediate goal is to get to first base, to generate enough interest that the reporter wants more.
The trick is to have something interesting to offer, and to state that idea in a compelling manner. You don’t have much time. Most reporters take only three to five seconds before deciding whether to reject an idea.
In any event, “pitching” is one of the primary PR skills. It’s also one of the most challenging. A good pitch:
Pitches can be written or verbal. Even if pitching by phone, it is good to write a short outline.
How can you develop an effective pitch? Here are some tips.
Know your target. Study the publication or program. Make sure the pitch fits them. Match their style as much as possible. You would not pitch The Wall Street Journal the same way you pitch Rolling Stone.
Personalize the pitch. Identify the right person for your pitch. If necessary, check the publication’s masthead. Better yet, read the publication and identify who covers your industry.
Make it clear that you have done your homework. Point out that the topic would be a good follow-up to a previous report. Suggest a particular section in the publication or program. Or cite some demographic information that shows why your story is appropriate for the readers. (You can find demographic information in the publication’s media kit, which is often available online.) Reporters like to know that you’re paying attention.
In PR, familiarity does not breed contempt. It often breeds success.
Start at the end. Think about what you’d like the final article to look like. Imagine a headline and subhead. Focus your writing to achieve that goal.
Write a good e-mail subject line. If you’re e-mailing the pitch, make sure your subject line tells your story quickly and convincingly.
Write a good lead. You need to immediately draw the reporter into your pitch. You might start either by “writing” the first paragraph of the story, referring to your conversation with the reporter (if you’ve connected by phone), or mentioning a previous article the reporter wrote. Statistics, stories, questions and dramatic statements often work well.
Present the broad story. Take your idea beyond your client or company, and focus on its larger impact. Will the idea help or hurt the economy? Your industry? Your area? Will it tie into a “hot” topic? Spell out the impact; don’t expect the reporter to figure it out.
Focus on the readers’ needs. What is the readers’ pain? How will they benefit from your suggestion?
Think about the obstacles. What would make the reporter turn down your suggestion? Is it too complicated? Too simple? Too similar to the publication’s other stories? Or too different? Think about possible objections and address them in your pitch.
Be specific. Give evidence – statistics, research and stories – to support your idea. Do the reporters’ work for them and you’ll increase your chances of success.
Make the pitch short and easy to read. It should only be a few paragraphs, one e-mail screen or one page. Use short words and sentences.
If appropriate, go negative. People are typically more motivated by the fear of loss (the “pain”) than by the promise of gain. So it might be more compelling to pitch a way to avoid a tax audit than to pitch tips on saving money on taxes.
Do not make the pitch too promotional. Stay factual and avoid hyperbole. Remember, you need to present an idea the reporter can use.
Do not send attachments. You can, however, link to your website and other resources.
Provide “extras” when possible. Offer photos or information for graphics. Offer to connect the reporter with industry experts, spokespeople and customers.
If you follow these recommendations, you’ll increase the chances that reporters will pay attention to your pitch.
A final note: In this discussion, I’ve referred to “readers.” However, the tips work just as well for broadcast media.
April 7, 2015 by Kay Paumier
Most Important Elements
Journalists felt that the most important elements in an online newsroom are:
A few notes on these elements:
Search functionality: 98 percent want to be able to easily access the material.
PR contacts: It continually surprises me that some companies hide their PR contact information. Clearly not a good idea.
News releases: Almost all the respondents wanted to be able to access news releases, and 95 percent of them want those releases to be organized by the type of news.
Photos: 96 percent of journalists wanted both high- and low-res photos. Additionally, 81 percent thought video was very important.
Breaking news: 93 percent of journalists said that it’s important to be able to access breaking news.
E-mail alerts: E-mail is still far and away the best way to reach journalists. However, journalists prefer quality over quantity. Most of them (75 percent) prefer to receive notifications only about news that is relevant to their work.
Product information: It only makes sense to have product information easily available, so that journalists can easily access product details.
Crisis communication: In a crisis, your online newsroom is one of the first places journalists will turn to for information. It’s recommended that you have a “dark” microsite ready for crisis communications.
Events calendar: This information increases the chance journalists will cover your events.
Social media: Nearly nine in 10 respondents said that it’s important for a newsroom to link to a company’s social media pages. What’s more, about the same percentage said they visit corporate Facebook pages, and 93 percent said they read blogs about companies, products and services.
Executive bios: Having bios online means journalists can easily check names and titles.
Information requests: Almost 90 percent of journalists want to be able to submit an information request online.
One last point. Most journalists (75 percent) want to be able to access this information from mobile devices.
These highlights are good reminders of some best practices. I encourage you to read the full report.
March 3, 2015 by Kay Paumier
Surveys are a great way to generate publicity, but many surveys fail to live up to their potential because of a faulty design, an ineffective news release, or both.
That’s why I was happy to see the excellent report from Researchscape, “Amp UP News Releases with Newsmaker Surveys,” which contains a wealth of good information.
The company analyzed more than 250 survey news releases to identify best practices and common mistakes. They also interviewed reporters about their attitudes towards such surveys. Their findings are comprehensive and (I found) very helpful.
Here are some of my favorite points:
A well-designed questionnaire can provide material for two or three news releases. On average, a survey news release reports the findings from five questions. Fifteen percent of releases in the survey reported on the results of a single question.
Economies of Scales
“A simple yes-no question won’t give you much to report on.” A matrix question, where respondents select from a common scale (e.g., “daily,” “weekly,” or “monthly “) has greater potential for generating news.
Reporters are more likely to report on surveys that follow best practices. Among other items, this means that a third-party research firm (not the sponsoring organization) conducted the research.
“Most survey news releases simply include a summary of key findings of the survey, without accompaniment.” The report recommends adding other assets, such as charts, graphs and infographics; the questions themselves; and an explanation of the methodology.
Optimizing Releases for Prospects
Offering a corresponding white paper is a great way to encourage visitors to go to the company’s website. “Many white papers are simply presentations of the survey results, with an introductory slide, one slide per question and a methodology slide.” However, it only makes sense to have the person first fill in a contact-information form in exchange for the white paper. (Only 7 percent of the survey releases examined had such a form.)
Common mistakes in writing survey news releases include:
Again, these are just some highlights from this report, which I highly recommend you read.
February 3, 2015 by Kay Paumier
March has lots of great anniversaries and celebrations. Among other things, it celebrates National Women’s History Month, International Mirth Month, and (dear to my heart) National Grammar Day and National Proofreading Day.
These types of celebrations offer opportunities for publicity. For example, March 10 is the anniversary of the invention of the telephone. How could someone take advantage of that? Well:
Got the idea? Here are some other events, celebrated throughout the entire month of March:
And here are other events celebrated during March:
December 9, 2014 by Kay Paumier
Why is it so hard to connect with journalists? Why don’t they respond? Why don’t they “buy” my pitch?
In short, what do they want anyway?
Many PR pros have asked themselves these and similar questions for years. In many ways, it’s easier than ever to get to know journalists, because their work is generally available online. At the same time, it can be harder than ever to connect with journalists, because their schedules are so demanding and they are overwhelmed with pitches and other material.
Fortunately, the Lawrence Ragan Communications report “What Journalists Want” describes many of the steps needed to develop good relationships with journalists. Here are some of their key points.
Engage with journalists on social media.
Follow them on Twitter. Retweet their tweets, but “don’t just click the retweet button. Instead, quote them in a tweet of your own, and include ‘RT’ or ‘MT’ and their @ handle. Tell your followers why the tweet matters, or even just add ‘Yes!’ or ‘I agree.’”
Target the right reporter.
Journalists have complained about inappropriate pitches from time immemorial. And today there really is no excuse to pitch the “wrong” reporter. Between online and social media, you should be able to confirm that you are approaching the right person.
Send appropriate email.
Most journalists (at least according to many surveys) prefer email to other forms of communication. But to get the reporter to read the message, you need a good subject line. Here are Ragan’s guidelines:
Make the body of the email “a short paragraph explaining what you’d like the reporter to cover.” In the process, answer these questions:
The whole email should be about half a screen. And, in general, you should not follow up with a phone call.
The report has other great tips on press releases, online news rooms and media interviews, which I’ll discuss in subsequent posts. But I am only discussing a few highlights. I encourage you to read the report in its entirety.
October 28, 2014 by Kay Paumier
I recently listened to a webinar entitled “Insider Secrets to the Perfect Pitch” by Batt Humphreys, a former CBS News executive with more than 30 years of experience in the industry.
Here is some of what I took away from the webinar, which was sponsored by Vocus/Cision. Much of this is not new, but it is important to regularly review the basics, especially the importance of the story and the pitch.
It’s all about the story. As the former newscaster Dan Rather said: “We’re all just telling stories here.”
What is a good story? Potential good story themes include:
Whenever possible, do your own research. Thirty-nine percent of respondents to a survey said that exclusive research helped make pitches stand out in the crowd. So look for ways to generate original data related to your topic.
Qualities of a Good Story
Whatever the angle, the story needs to be clear and concise, and connect with its intended audience.
Once you have your story, you need to pitch it. Some tips:
These are just some of the highlights from the webinar, which you can hear for yourself here.
September 18, 2014 by Kay Paumier
Ever since Deep Throat, people have been fascinated by how the news media get information.
Although you probably won’t be involved in toppling a president, you might have reason to consider whether you should say “no comment,” speak “off the record,” or offer some material exclusively.
Unfortunately, these definitions are often misunderstood, both by the interviewee and the interviewer. For that reason, it’s a good idea to discuss the meaning of the term with the reporter before you provide any information.
As the online encyclopedia Wikipedia notes: “Politicians, rock stars, royalty and other celebrities seem to favor the no-comment line of defense.”
For the rest of us, however, the term makes little or no sense. Studies show that people think you’re guilty if you even say “no comment.”
That doesn’t mean you have to answer every question. You can just state that you cannot discuss a particular topic. Just avoid the words “no comment,” which for many people, imply guilt.
“On the Record”
When you speak “on the record,” everything you say can be reproduced verbatim and attributed to you, without further approval from you. Most media interviews are on the record.
“Off the Record”
“Off the record” means you are speaking not for publication or attribution. Many people think that “off-the-record” comments will never find their way into print. However, the term just means that the information will not be attributed to you. The reporter could still attribute the information to “an anonymous source” or could track down someone else who will confirm the information and be quoted.
Also, just saying something is “off the record” (or “not for attribution” or “on background”) is insufficient. The reporter must agree to keep the comments confidential.
I would never advise a client to go “off the record” unless we had a good relationship with the reporter and knew that he or she was trustworthy. In general, it’s good to keep everything “on the record.”
“Not for Attribution”
Speaking “not for attribution” is just a variation of “off the record” and, again, requires the reporter’s agreement to be effective.
The term means that the information will not be attributed to you directly. However, you could be described in such a way as to suggest your identity (e.g., “a high-ranking official in the State Department”).
“On Background” and “On Deep Background”
Another variation of the off-the-record theme is to speak “on background.” The Encarta dictionary defines “on background” as speaking “on conditions of anonymity and in an effort to provide the press with non-attributable information, usually sensitive in nature, which addresses the issue on background only.”
If you speak “on background,” you give the reporter some information that cannot be attributed to you, but could be attributed to an “industry insider,” “high-ranking official’ or the like. Your information can be quoted verbatim.
If you speak “on deep background,” the reporter should not attribute the material to any source.
Both “on background” and “on deep background” are mainly used for explanatory discussions and investigative reporting. However, if the reporter can get the same information from an alternate source, that material may be used.
And, again, the reporter must agree to the terms in advance.
Nondisclosure Agreements (NDAs)
When dealing with unannounced products or initiatives, you can ask the reporters to sign a nondisclosure agreement (NDA), which is a formalized version of an embargo.
The NDA describes the terms under which reporters may disclose the information they receive. In particular, the NDA should state the date when the reporter is free to use the information.
The reporter must sign the agreement for it to be effective.
Until this point, all the confidentiality issues we’ve discussed bind the editor. Exclusives and specials bind you.
Exclusives are usually restricted to feature or interview placements. In general, the term means that the article or material will not be given to any other publication or program, or that the spokesperson will not interview with any other outlet. Oftentimes, an exclusive increases the chances a story will be published or aired.
A “special” is just another way of saying an exclusive. The term, which is commonly used for contributed articles, means that the material is tailored for a particular publication. You should not submit that exact material to any other publication or outlet.
Magazines usually insist on specials or exclusives for contributed articles. If a publication requests an exclusive, make sure you understand what the editor or producer means by the term. If the outlet is prestigious enough to request an exclusive, it’s probably important enough for you to give it.
A Final Note
As stated earlier, these terms have slightly different definitions, and misunderstandings are common. Avoid surprises. Confirm the meaning of the term before you providing any information.
September 4, 2014 by Kay Paumier
Here are some of the media’s most common pet peeves, with advice on how to avoid them.
#1: Showing you do not understand the media outlet
Avoid pitching stories that do not fit the publication, program or blog.
One editor told me that a PR firm regularly pitched cooking recipes to his technology publication, a sure sign they didn’t know what the magazine covered.
And there really is no excuse. Review the media outlet. Note its sections and departments, its tone and topics. Check its media kit, which gives you an overview of its audience and mission. (You can typically find media kits either under the “advertising” or “about us” sections on the web.)
Do the same type of research for any broadcast program. Note its format (e.g., news program or talk show). Study the personalities of the host and hostess. Learn the correct pronunciation and spelling of their names. (Don’t be like the PR manager who mispronounced the name of a leading San Francisco radio personality. This definitely showed that she had not listened to the program. It’s fair to assume that the producer only slightly listened to her.)
Throughout this process, consider where your company or organization might “fit” into the publication or program. Remember, the media is not going to adapt to you. You need to find a place for yourself.
#2: Showing you do not understand the journalist’s role
Some journalists regularly filter out communication from companies or agencies they feel have wasted their time.)
Contact the appropriate person for your story or pitch. For newspapers, send news releases to the city editor (for local news) or to the business editor (for business stories). For magazines, send news releases to the news editor. For newspapers and magazines, send story ideas and articles to the features or articles editor. For blogs, send to the blogger who writes about your industry.
For broadcast contact the news director (for newscasts) or producers (of specific programs).
#3: Failing to respond
If a journalist asks you for information, get it to them as quickly as possible. In general, I recommend getting back to the media within the hour, if only to say that you can’t provide the information immediately. If that’s the case, at least let them know you’re working on it, and give an estimate of when you will have the material.
#4: Failing to deliver
If you’ve promised something, deliver it or have a very good reason why you don’t.
One way to assure you’ll keep your promises is to focus on the most important reporters and editors. The 80/20 rule works in publicity as in virtually every other endeavor. Keep in close contact with the people who provide 80 percent of the value of your publicity program.
#6: Hiding contact information
It’s amazing, but many companies do not put media contacts on their websites or even on their news releases. Include contact information on all releases, and place the information prominently on your online press room.
#5: Treating someone poorly
Years ago, someone verbally attacked the assistant of a prominent technology journalist, bringing the assistant to tears. He went public with the story, making it clear that he did not appreciate that kind of conduct.
The moral of the story: follow the golden rule. It’s good business. It’s good PR.
#7: Losing perspective
This is perhaps the media’s biggest pet peeve of all.
Sometimes PR people are too close to their companies to do their jobs well. PR’s function is to facilitate two-way communication between the organization, the media and other outside groups. The best PR people are intermediaries. They help both their companies and the media.
So look at things as reporters would. Ask yourself if your idea would appeal to their readers or viewers. Adapt the idea until it has that appeal.
This ability to balance the needs of the organization with the needs of the media is at the core of solid PR work. Maintain that balance and you will have a win-win relationship with your company and the media.
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